New trojan peddles porn while you work

New trojan peddles porn while you work

Spammers based in Russia are using stealth and a sophisticated new trojan program to turn home workstations into unwitting hosts in a pornography and spam distribution ring, according to security experts.

The deceptive and potentially illegal practice came to the attention of experts in late June and has been a topic of conversation among spam fighters on Internet discussion groups since then, according to Joe Stewart, senior intrusion analyst with LURHQ, a managed security services company.

Experts observed that one spammer who was sending out spam email pointing to spoofed PayPal Web sites and Russian pornography sites appeared to be able to change the addresses of his Web sites every few minutes.

An Internet security and privacy consultant, Richard Smith, stumbled upon the problem in early July while investigating email messages pointing to a phony PayPal site that was being used to harvest personal financial information from customers of the online payment service.

After reporting the address of the site that he believed was the source of the phony Web site to the ISP (Internet service provider) responsible for that address, Smith was surprised to see the same Web domain associated with a different Internet address belonging to a different ISP a few minutes later, and still another address a few minutes after that.

"I said, 'Whoa! That's interesting'," Smith recalled.

After writing a program to monitor the Web sites associated with the pornography and bogus PayPal domains, Smith collected the IP addresses of hundreds of computers being used as hosts for the illicit content, each for only a few minutes at a time.

The trick lies in a sophisticated trojan program placed on the remote systems and used by the spammer, according to Stewart, who obtained a copy of the program from an infected system belonging to an employee of one of LURHQ's enterprise customers.

The program, which he dubbed "migmaf", acted as both a proxy server for spam and a reverse proxy server for a master Web server serving the spoofed and pornographic content, Stewart said.

Domain names and email addresses for the pornography sites pointed to Russia as the source, Smith said.

In its capacity as a proxy server, the trojan forwards outgoing spam from its source to the intended recipient, replacing the source address with its own IP (Internet Protocol) address and covering the spammer's tracks.

As a reverse proxy server, the trojan receives requests from spam recipients who, for example, click on a link to a pornographic Web site, and passes that along to the master Web server.

That server responded with the requested Web page and sent that content along to the compromised computer, which then served it to the requesting machine, Stewart said.

Users never knew where the content they were receiving was really coming from, and the Web site's owners were shielded from pressure by their ISP to shut down the site, Smith and Stewart said.

Because such behind-the-scenes activity might eventually arouse the suspicions of victims, each compromised user machine acted as a DNS (Domain Name Service) host for the illicit Web domains for only 10 minutes, before being replaced by another compromised system known to the spammer, Smith said.

To continually move Web properties around, the spammer installs DNS software on the compromised machines, turning them into their own DNS servers. Then, using features of DNS, the spammer sets a short expiration, or "time to live" setting on what is referred to as the DNS "host name mappings," which specify a relationship between a domain name, such as, and a numeric Internet address, Smith said.

Using online domain registration services such as Network Solutions and automated scripts, the spammer updated the host mapping information at regular intervals, replacing the DNS address for one compromised machine with that of another, Smith said.

Such techniques are attractive to spammers who were looking to bypass IP address blacklists, that are the most widely used antispam technology, a spam expert for antispam company Qurb, Linus Upson, said.

"As a spammer, you care about deliverability - getting spam into people's mailboxes," Upson said. "A solution like this nullifies the most widely used antispam technology."

And, for spammers involved in fraudulent activity, hiding the source of the spam was a way to avoid getting caught, he said.

Neither Stewart nor Smith knew how the trojan came to be installed on the affected systems.

A virus such as W32.Sobig could have dropped it on systems that it infected, or a malicious Active X control on a Web site could have planted it on vulnerable machines, Smith said.

Alternatively, the program could have been distributed through the IRC (Internet Relay Chat) network or peer-to-peer (P-to-P) networks like Kazaa, Stewart said.

While the new trojan cannot spread itself like a virus, migmaf has a number of features that report the statistics of systems it compromises back to the master Web server, according to an analysis written by Stewart and posted on the LURHQ Web site. The trojan can report statistics and information about its current state back to the master server and monitor the available bandwidth on the infected system, he said.

By dissecting a copy of the trojan, Stewart was able to trace the location of the master Web server back to a machine owned by Houston Web-hosting company, Everyones Internet.

Everyones Internet did not respond to a request for comment, but Stewart said that the master Web server had been deactivated and Smith said that his monitoring showed that the PayPal and pornography Web sites were down. Nevertheless, the new distribution system would make it extremely difficult to track down the source of future illicit content and spam, Smith said.

"It took Joe Stewart seven days to locate that server," Smith said. "It usually takes a couple minutes."

Like Kazaa and other P-to-P networks, the new spam network is distributed and lacks a single point of failure, which will make it difficult to dismantle, Smith said.

The sample trojan program has been passed along to major antivirus companies, which were developing signatures to detect the stealth program, Stewart said. However, multiple versions of the migmaf trojan probably exist, many of which would not have antivirus signatures developed for them.

Users were advised to install personal firewalls on any unprotected home computers, especially those with "always on" broadband Internet connections, both Smith and Stewart said.

Even if it didn't prevent users from having the new trojan installed, firewall software would prevent the spammers master server from communicating with an infected host and becoming a distribution point for spam or pornography, they said.

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