Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water
Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water discusses the major steps and goals in risk assessments and suggests ways to improve the methodologies and accuracy, while consolidating up-to-date information on the current principles and practices in one authoritative reference. After an enlightening overview of risk assessment practices and regulatory guidelines, it:
- Includes descriptions of the use of variability analysis, exposure analysis, physiologically based pharmacokinetics, and modeling for both cancer and non-cancer endpoints
- Describes the practices of major organizations, including the U.S. EPA, Health Canada, World Health Organization, and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
- Includes complete chapters on risk assessment for essential nutrients, arsenic, chloroform, and perchlorate
- Explains how to address susceptible sub-populations, including the elderly and infants and children, in risk assessments
- Covers the potential of using genomic and proteomic screens
- Addresses recent advances, emerging issues, and future challenges
Robert A. Howd is Chief of the Water Toxicology Section in the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment of the California EPA, supervising the production of California Public Health Goals for chemicals in drinking water. Dr. Howd has authored or coauthored over fifty formal scientific publications and numerous government reports.
Anna M. Fan is Chief of the Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA. Dr. Fan has served on the U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board, Drinking Water Committee; the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee; and other national advisory committees. She is an editor of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Drinking Water Risk Assessment (Robert A. Howd).
Development of Drinking Water Regulations.
The Risk Assessment Process.
Public Perceptions and the Precautionary Principle.
2 Summary of the Development of Federal Drinking Water Regulations and Health-Based Guidelines for Chemical Contaminants (Joyce Morrissey Donohue and Wynne Maynor Miller).
Selecting Candidates for Regulatory Consideration.
Key Components for Regulatory Development.
Development of Regulatory Values.
3 Interpretation of Toxicologic Data for Drinking Water Risk Assessment (Robert A. Howd and Anna M. Fan).
Animal Toxicity Studies.
Human Toxicity Studies.
4 Exposure Source and Multiroute Exposure Considerations for Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Contaminants(Kannan Krishnan and Richard Carrier).
Exposure Source Considerations in Risk Assessment.
Routes of Exposure and Dose Calculations.
5 Toxicokinetics for Drinking Water Risk Assessment (John C. Lipscomb).
Evaluation of Toxicity Data.
Toxicokinetics: PBPK Modeling.
6 Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures in Drinking Water (Richard C. Hertzberg, Glenn E. Rice, Linda K. Teuschler, J. Michael Wright, and Jane E. Simmons).
Drinking Water Mixture Concerns.
Estimating Exposures to Multiple Chemicals in Drinking Water.
Toxicological Concepts for Joint Toxicity.
Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment Methods.
New Approaches for Assessing Risk from Exposure to Drinking Water Mixtures.
7 Protection of Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Subpopulations (George V. Alexeeff and Melanie A. Marty).
Factors Influencing Differences in Susceptibility Between Infants and Children and Adults.
Critical Systems and Periods in Development.
Age at Exposure and Susceptibility to Carcinogens.
Drinking Water Standards Developed to Protect Sensitive.
8 Risk Assessment for Essential Nutrients (Joyce Morrissey Donohue).
Comparison of Guideline Values.
Risk Assessment Recommendations.
9 Risk Assessment for Arsenic in Drinking Water (Joseph P. Brown).
Occurrence and Exposure.
10 Risk Assessment for Chloroform, Reconsidered (Richard Sedman).
Noncancer Toxic Effects.
Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity.
Regulation of Cancer Risk.
11 Risk Assessment of a Thyroid Hormone Disruptor: Perchlorate (David Ting).
Human Health Risk Assessment.
Risk Characterization and Conclusions.
12 Emerging Contaminants in Drinking Water: A California Perspective (Steven A. Book and David P. Spath).
Emerging Chemicals of the Recent Past.
Newer Emerging Contaminants.
Future Emerging Chemicals.
13 U.S. EPA Drinking Water Field Office Perspectives and Needs for Risk Assessment (Bruce A. Macler).
The Nature of Regulatory Risk Assessments.
Use of Drinking Water Risk Information in EPA Field Offices.
14 Risk Assessment: Emerging Issues, Recent Advances, and Future Challenges (Anna M. Fan and Robert A. Howd).
Advances in Science, Approaches, and Methods.
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